The part that was painful for us to post here was specifically "THE FULFILMENT OF THE PROPHECIES" [sic] section within this excerpt. This is a point by point dissertation by the WAAJA authors that explain the fulfillment of The Protocols mentioned in this piece. We find that these point by point explanations may be thought of by some to be bit reactionary and inflammatory, even considering the extent of the emotions of the times. We will add however, that any negative reactions to the comments by the authors will be from their choice of wording, which wouldn't be our choice by any means. More on that later.
Due to circumstances that we have uncovered in our research, we have found that we MUST publish them here and that by doing so, make it perfectly clear that these comments are not to be confused with the Rabbi's dissertation contained herein. BeWISE has discovered a number of Christian-Patriot publications which in their valiant attempts to verify the fact that The Protocols were written with a Rabbinical pen, have misused (albeit unknowingly) this most important information. Some of the authors of these publications were actually "putting words into the Rabbi's mouth", and we couldn't allow that to continue. BeWISE is unique in that we want the Truth revealed. We don't feel the need to fabricate information for the Truth to stand on its own. While we were surprised that these otherwise well researched publications would get this information so turned around, we can definitely understand how it could happen. Thus the need for constant meticulous verification of source material.
It should be pointed out that while BeWISE finds the authors comments reactionary and
inflammatory, we found that we could verify their conclusions. We also found
that we could have added to this commentary and documented a vast amount of
information that would totally 100% collaborate these conclusions. Rather than
do any of this, and other than (1) exception dealing with the
In spite of the fact that we can (for the most part) agree with the authors in their point by point explanation of the Rabbi's comments, we find that some of their choice of words wouldn't have been ours. For instance, we would have substituted the words "Talmudic" where they have used the words "Jew" or "Jewish". We feel that there are better ways in which to disseminate information such as this. However,
Frequent mention is made of these Protocols in our writings in order that the reader may not lose sight of the claim that woven into the warp and woof of these documents is to be found the cause of much of the troubles which the nations face today.
Reference has been made to a telegram which the head of the Zionists sent to a Jewish Representative in Congress, in which Mr. Adler emphasized the point that Mr. Ford had classified the articles in the Dearborn Independent as a bundle of lies, or words to that effect. It does not require a Sherlock Holmes in the realm of literary science to prove that the construction of the Protocols was from within and not from outside sources. A study of current events since their production also prove that the power which produced the Protocols had the power to accomplish their program or, as Mr. Ford has been quoted, that everything was coming along just as announced in the Protocols.
Ten years ago "The Britons" published a
small leaflet called 4 Protocols of
"Is there, or is there not, a World Plot
organized through the centuries by the
"The Satanic method of the Jew power is well expressed in the following extract from a novel The Way to Zion, published in Germany in 1912, by a Jew, Dr. Kurt Munzer: --
"We (Jews) have spoiled the blood of all the races of
Europe. Taken as a whole, everything today is Jewdified. Our senses are alive to all the races. Our spirit reigns over the world. We are the Lords; all that is Might today is child of our spirit."
"Let the Goyim hate us: Let them drive us out: Let our enemies laugh at our physical weakness: We cannot be driven out any more. We have eaten ourselves into the peoples. We have vitiated the races (of the Europeans). We have tarnished and broken their power; we have made everything of theirs foul, rotten, decomposed, decayed."
"There speaks the true spirit of Judaism,
and Judaism is the Anti-Christ. The 4 Protocols of
" 'There is much in the fact of Bolshevism itself, in the fact that so many Jews are Bolshevists, in the fact that the ideals of Bolshevism at many points are consonant with the finest ideals of Judaism' - The Jewish Chronicle, April 4, 1919."
"What is a Protocol? Literally, a 'Protocol' is 'something glued on to the front' of something else. In its usual sense it is a term of diplomacy and means the summary or precis of an official document gummed on its front page. Hence the word has come to mean minutes, or a rough draft of any document or record of proceedings. It is in this sense that the term is used in the title of the book known as The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion."
"The latter work purports to contain
minutes of certain secret meetings of the Elders of Zion at which were laid bare
the aim and purpose of the General Headquarters of the Jewish nation for the
conquest and enslavement of the entire world. A translation of it was first
published in this country (
"But the Protocols of the Elders do not by
any means stand alone. There are many other parallel statements of Jewish
policy, dating from many centuries past and coming down to our most recent
times. Of these we now present Four to our readers. The
first of the four dates from the fifteenth century and, as it first appeared in
a Rothschild-owned journal, it is not likely that this will be pronounced a
forgery. The second is the manifesto of Adolphe Cremieux, addressed to the nation of Jewry on the occasion
of the founding of the Universal Israelite
"Nine years later appeared the celebrated
Funeral Oration of Rabbi Reichhorn pronounced over the
tomb of Simeon-ben-Ihuda. This was in 1869. Whether
this 'tomb' is a mythical tomb - analagous to
"Appended to the prophecies of this Protocol we have put a few of the events which have happened in fulfilment. It will be seen that there is a close correspondence between this Protocol, the Cremieux Manifesto, and the epistle emanating from the 'Prince of the Jews' in 1489 A.D., and published in a Rothschild magazine. It is probable that when the latter was published it was not imagined that any Gentiles would even think of connecting it with other documents emanating from Jewry, or with modern happenings."
"The last of the four Protocols, has like
the first, never been called in question by the nation of Jewry. It was found on
the body of a Jew, Zunder, Commander of the 11th Sharp Shooter Battalion of the Bolshevic Army. It reveals identically the same plans and
purposes of the Jews for World Dominion and revenge which pervades them all.
This one especially gloats over the Jew conquest and enslavement of
"Before giving the
text of our Four Protocols it will be well to say a few words about the
'Religion' of Jewry. 'British' Jews go through
wonderful contortions in order to make it appear that they are 'Englishmen of
the Jewish Religion.' In point of fact, 'religion' and 'race' are
interchangeable terms with the Jew. There are no 'British' or 'German' Jews or
'Russian' Jews; there are only Jews. As the Jewish World puts it, 'Jewry is
One'; and the late Arthur Cohen, K.C., said, Judaism is
a religion which is only possible to a certain Race. The very word '
"What then are the 'principles' of the religious aspect of the Jewish race? In one word the principle of Judaism is Separatism - that is, Pharisaism, self-righteousness, and enmity to all other races. The Jew believes that he is separate from all other beings, that he, in fact, is the only 'human' being, the rest of the people on the earth being on the level of the animals. From this it necessarily follows that Jewry claims the right to treat all the rest of the world accordingly. This is precisely what 'Jewish rights' amount to when analysed. * * * The germ of Judaism is fully expanded in the book which is much more sacred to the Children of Israel than any part of the Old Testament known to Christians --THE TALMUD."
"In the 'Prefatory Letter' written by Dr. Oscar Levy to Mr. George Pitt-Rivers The World Significance of the Russian Revolution, we find this passage dealing with the morality, (or, rather, immorality) of the Jewish religion. Says Dr. Levy, 'There has been no progress, least of all moral progress * * * And it is just our (Jewish) Morality which has prohibited all real progress, and - what is worse - which even stands in the way of every future and natural reconstruction in this ruined world of ours'."
"This is a passage which all Christians must lay to heart. There is no wonder that the Jew power which controls the government of this country insisted on the expulsion of Dr. Levy. Dr. Levy is one of those very rare Jews who can look at the world from a HUMAN standpoint, and in a Jew that is an unpardonable crime with Jewry, and, according to the Talmud, is deserving of the death penalty. It is a cardinal sin in a Jew not to favor a Jew at the expense of a non-Jew. Hence a Jew in office must appoint a Jew to every available post within his gift. * * *"
"The Revue des etudes
Juives, financed by James de Rothschild, published in
1880 two documents, which showed how true the Protocols are in saying that the
Learned Elders of
"Dear beloved brethren in Moses, we have received your letter in which you tell us of the anxieties and misfortunes which you are enduring. We are pierced by as great pain to hear it as yourselves."
"The advice of the Grand Satraps and Rabbis is the following: --"As for what you say that the King of France obliges you to become Christians; do it, since you cannot do otherwise, but let the law of Moses be kept in your hearts."(1)
"As for what you say about the command to despoil you of your goods" (the law was that on becoming converted Jews gave up their possessions): 'make your sons merchants, that little by little they may despoil the Christians of theirs'."
"As for what you say about their making attempts on your lives: make your sons doctors and apothecaries, that they may take away Christian lives. (If you want to understand the present global situation, read "The Curse of Canaan" by Eustace Mullins).
"As for what you say of their destroying your synagogues: make your sons canons and clerics in order that they may destroy their churches."
"As for the many other vexations you complain of: arrange that your sons become advocates and lawyers, and see that they always mix themselves up with the affairs of State, in order that by putting Christians under your yoke you may dominate the world and be avenged on them."
"Do not swerve from this order that we give you, because you will find by experience that, humiliated as you are, you will reach the actuality of power."
"Signed V. S. S.A.F. F., Prince of the Jews, 21st Caslue (November), 1489.
Although it is nearly half a millenium since the above was written, there is a dreadfully modern ring about the clauses. Compared with the items of the following Protocol of 1860, it will be seen that the spirit of both is identically the same."
(1) From p. 137 of Essays & Lectures on Orders and Jurisdiction by Rev. F. W. Puller, M.A.: "At one time in Spain a certain number of the Bishops were really Jews in belief."
We take this Protocol
from the Morning Post of Sept. 6, 1920: --"A correspondent writing in
reference to the Hidden Peril draws attention to a Manifesto issued in
1860 to the 'Jews of the Universe,' by Adolphe Cremieux, the founder of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, and the well-known member of the Provisional
Government of 1871. Adolphe Cremieux, while Grand
Master of the French Masonic Lodges, offered 1,000,000 francs for the head of
William I. of
" 'Here lies Adolphe Chemieux, the founder of the
"Motto: 'All Jews for one, and one for all'."
"The union which we desire to found will not be a French, English, Irish or German union, but a Jewish one, a universal one. Other peoples and races are divided into nationalities; we alone have not co-citizens, but exclusively co-religionaries."
"A Jew will under no circumstances become the friend of a Christian or Moslem before the moment arrives when the light of the Jewish faith, the only religion of reason, will shine all over the world."
"Scattered amongst other nations, who from time immemorial were hostile to our rights and interests, we desire primarily to be and to remain immutably Jews."
"Our nationality is the religion of our fathers, and we recognize no other nationality."
"We are living in foreign lands, and cannot trouble about the mutable ambitions of countries entirely alien to us, while our own moral and material problems are endangered."
"The Jewish teaching must cover the whole earth. Israelites: No matter where fate should lead - though scattered all over the earth, you must always consider yourselves members of a
"If you realize that the faith of your Fathers is your only patriotism,--"
"--if you recognize that, nothwithstanding the nationalities you have embraced, you always remain and everywhere form one and only nation,--"
"--if you believe that Jewry only is the one and only religious and political truth,--"
"--if you are convinced of this, you, Israelites of the Universe--"
"--then come and give ear to our appeal and prove to us your consent: * * *"
"Our cause is great and holy, and its success is guaranteed. Catholicism, our immemorial enemy, is lying in the dust, mortally wounded in the head."
"The net which
is throwing over the globe of the earth is widening and spreading daily, and the momentous prophecies of our Holy Books are at last to be realized. The time is near when Israel will become the house of prayer for all nations and peoples, and the banner of Jewish monodeity will be unfurled and hoisted on the most distant shores. Let us avail ourselves of all circumstances. Our might is immense --learn to adopt this might for our cause. What have you to be afraid of? The day is not distant when all the riches and treasures of the earth will become the property of the children of Jerusalem ." Israel
"P. S. More than sitxy years have elapsed since this Protocol was written,
and the riches of the earth are now almost entirely in the possession or under
the control of the Children of
"The Jew regards all non-Jews as foreigners, and he is an alien everywhere. Protocol No.3 amplifies this."
"In its issue of 21 October, 1920 (No. 195) La Veille France published an extremely important Russian document in which the following passage occurs:"
"There is a striking analogy between the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the discourse of the Rabbi Reichhorn, pronounced in Prague in 1869 over the tomb of the Grand Rabbi Simeon-ben-Ihuda, and published by Readcliffe, who paid with his life for the divulgation; Sonol, who had taken Readcliffe to hear Reichhorn, was killed in a duel some time afterwards. The general ideas formulated by the Rabbi are found fully developed in the Protocols."
"In its issue of 10 March, 1921, (No. 214) La Veille France gives the version of the funeral oration which was published in La Russie Juive. It is perfectly clear that the funeral oration and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion come from one and the same mint. Both are prophetic; and the power which made the prophecies has been able to bring about their fulfilment. This oration is so important that we append to it an account or the fulfilment of each of the sections. There can no longer be any doubt as to whose is the power which is disturbing the world, creating World Unrest, and at the same time reaping all the profits. Jewry is enslaving all Christian peoples of the earth. There IS a Jew World Plot and it now stands finally and completely unmasked."
"1). Every hundred years, We, the Sages of Israel, have been accustomed to meet in Sanhedrin in order to examine our progress towards the domination of the world which Jehovah has promised us, and our conquests over the enemy - Christianity."
"2). This year, united over the tomb of our reverend Simeon-ben-Ihuda, we can state with pride that the past century has brought us very near to our goal, and that this goal will be very soon attained."
"3). Gold has always been and always will be the irresistible power. Handled by expert hands it will be the most useful lever for those who possess it, and the object of envy for those who do not. With gold we can buy the most rebellious consciences, can fix the rate of all values, the current price of all products, can subsidize all state loans, and thereafter hold the states at our mercy.
"4). Already the principal banks, the exchanges of the entire world, the credits of all the governments are in our hands."
"5). The other great power is the Press. By repeating without cessation certain ideas, the Press succeeds in the end in having them accepted as actualities. The Theatre renders us analagous services. Everywhere the Press and the Theatre obey our orders."
"6). By the ceaseless praise of Democratic Rule we shall divide the Christians into political parties, we shall destroy the unity of their nations, we shall sow discord everywhere. Reduced to impotence they will bow before the Law of Our Bank, always united, and always devoted to our cause.
"7). We shall force the Christians into wars by exploiting their pride and their stupidity. They will massacre each other and clear the ground for us to put our own people into."
"8). The possession of the land has always brought influence and power. In the name of Social Justice and Equality we shall parcel out the great estates; we shall give the fragments to the peasants who covet them with all their powers, and who will soon be in debt to us by the expense of cultivating them. Our capital will make us their masters. We, in our turn, shall become the great proprietors, and the possession of the land will assure the power to us."
"9). Let us try to replace the circulation of gold with paper money; our chests will absorb the gold and we shall regulate the value of the paper which will make us masters of all the positions."
10). We count among us plenty of orators capable of feigning enthusiasm and of persuading mobs. We shall spread them among the people to announce changes which should secure the happiness of the human race. By gold and by flattery we shall gain the proletariat which will charge itself with annihilating Christian capitalism. We shall promise workmen salaries of which they have never dared to dream, but we shall also raise the price of necessities so that our profits will be greater still."
"11). In this manner we shall prepare Revolutions which the Christians will make themselves and of which we shall reap the fruit."
"12). By our mockeries and our attacks upon them we shall make their priests ridiculous then odious, and their religion as ridiculous and odious as their clergy. Then we shall be masters of their souls. For our pious attachment to our own religion, to our own worship, will prove the superiority of our religion and the superiority of our souls."
"13). We have already established our own men in all important positions. We must endeavor to provide the goyim with lawyers and doctors; the lawyers are au courant with all interests; doctors, once in the house become confessors and directors of consciences."
"14). But above all let us monopolize education. By this means we spread ideas that are useful to us and shape the children's brains as suits us."
"15). If one of our people should unhappily fall into the hands of justice amongst the Christians, we must rush to help him; find as many witnesses as he needs to save him from his judges, until we become judges ourselves.
"16). The monarchs of the Christian world, swollen with ambition and vanity, surround themselves with luxury and with numerous armies. We shall furnish them with all the money their folly demands, and so shall keep them in leash."
"17). Let us take care not to hinder the marriage of our men with Christian girls, for through them we shall get our foot into the most closely locked circles. If our daughters marry Goyim they will be no less useful, for the children of a Jewish mother are ours. Let us foster the idea of free love, that we may destroy among Christian women attachment to the principles and practices of their religion."
"18). For ages past the Sons of
, despised and persecuted, have been working to open up a path to power. They are hitting the mark. They control the economic life of the accursed Christians; their influence preponderates over politics and over manners. Israel
"19). At the wished for hour, fixed in advance, we shall let loose the Revolution, which by ruining all classes of Christianity will definitely enslave the Christians to us. Thus will be accomplished the promise of God to his People."
"1). Within the half
century which has elapsed since this prophetic oration was made, Judaism has
taken giant strides in its conquests over its age-long 'enemy' - Christianity.
(That the word 'enemy' is used advisedly is proven by the statement of the son
of a Rabbi who, after his conversion to Christianity, said that his father told
him to spit at a Christian church when he passed same as its founder was a
bastard --Author.) Purse, Press, Politics - these are the engines by means of
which the Elders of
"2). Four of the Christian Empires -
"3). The Gold of the Nations is the real
"4). As for the principle Banks and Exchanges the names of Rothschild, Gwinner, Bleichroeder, Schroeder, Schuster, Goldschmidt, Goschen, Speyer, Schiff, Loeb, Kahn, Kuhn, Cassel, Samuel, Warburg, Guggenheim, sufficiently attest the Overlordship of Jewry in Lucre's Empire."
"5). But without control of the World's Press, the power of gold could not be maintained. The Press of one country would not be sufficient. Hence the necessity of securing the control of all lines of communication, press agencies Wolff Bureaus, Reuter's, Agence Havas, Marconi's, advertisement agencies as well as the actual ownership of papers, such as exist throughout the world today. In our own country there is not a single daily morning paper, except the Morning Post which has any freedom from Jew control. The theatres and cinemas are equally tied and the British Public are treated to Jew propaganda plays like 'The Little Brother,' 'Welcome Stranger,' 'The Wandering Jew,' and Mr. Levy's lavatory and bed-chamber plays in his Grand Guignol. 'Everywhere the Press and the Theatre are under our orders.' And the Jews are so well placed in regard to cinemas that they boast that they can censor their own films (Jewish Guardian)."
"6). 'Liberalism' is one of the chief instruments of Jewish power. Through preaching this doctrine and getting into the machinery of Liberal parties, Jews have exploited for their own ends the generous instincts of all the peoples who have received them into their communities. Jews have preached 'democracy,' and through getting their dupes to believe it, have succeeded in rivetting on their necks the chain of Shylocracy, the rule of the Crowned Usurer, Shylock-Rothschild, who was admitted to England's Parliament by 'Liberal' statesmen, and now rules the world. Jew banks appear to be many, but in reality there is only one. Reduced to impotence the nations bow before the Law - not of Moses, even, but of the Jews' Bank - 'always united and always devoted to our (Jewish) cause'."
"7). Thanks to the terrible Power of this
Bank, Jews have forced Christians into wars without number, culminating in the
Great War. Wars have this especial value for Jews that Christians massacre each
other and make more room for the
(2) Over against this statement of the Jew Sombart, who is recognized as an able historian, we find,
New York Times, Nov. 24, 1933, when receiving a medal from a deputized
representative of the President, that the recipient, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt
said: "I have long believed that the Jews, being the only people scattered among
all the nations, have a peculiar call to the leadership against war." Here is
another instance where true patriots may observe that Mrs. Catt is as far away
on her history as she is, according to the patriotic women of
"8). By Jew-made laws the ancient proprietors of England are being rapidly deprived of their estates, and farmers and laborers are at the same time becoming more and more completely enslaved under Shylock's power."
"9). Jews have the gold and we have paper money. Jews give the 'paper' the value which suits their interests. So that a good harvest may mean ruin to a farrner just as readily as a bad one through Jew manipulation of prices and exchanges. At the present day, for purposes of selling, a litter of pedigree puppies will fetch as much as a good-sized stack of hay, although the hay will feed just as many horses as it did when hay was five times its present price."
"10). Oratory is another great asset of the Gold-Power of Jewry. Shinwells in Scotland, Monds in Wales, De Valeras in Ireland, Isaacses and Samuels in England and India with their Gentile Front megaphones like Lloyd-George, Asquith, Churchill, McKenna, MacDonald, Henderson, Lansbury, Tom Mann, Watson, etc., are all serving the Jew's ends. By gold and false promises they turn the proletariat against Christian capitalists - who are often not capitalists at all, but actual producers - and divert their attention from the real Shylocks, who are the actual villians of the piece. By raising the workmen's wages to an impossible level they destroy trade, and by raising the price of food they produce at once Unemployment and Starvation which make the enslaving power of Shylock and his tribe greater than ever."
"11). Thus come Revolutions in which
Christians do all the fighting and of which the Jews reap all the profits.
"12). Thanks to Jew educationalists in the Press and on the platform, the churches are suffering from creeping paralysis. The Jews are preaching Atheism to Christians that Judaism may remain alone in the field. Mond with his English Review was doing the educational work of his tribe in pollutmg the minds of his English readers."
"13). The power of Jewry has put its own sons or sons of Gentile agents in all positions of strategic importance. We have seen the Lloyd George-Sassoon combination presiding over the Empire; Isaacs, Samuel, Meyer over India; Samuel over Palestine; Mond over the health of the Kingdom, to name only a few samples in this country, and in other countries it is even worse; whilst the League of Nations - as the Jews themselves boast - is essentially a Jewish concern."
"14). As for monopoly of education, the
name of Magnuses, Collanczes, Waldsteins, Less,
Lowes, Hartogs, Monds, etc.,
shew how rotten with Judaism are the educational
establishments of this country. The professorial chairs of
"15). Jews are so fond of 'Law' that they
are rapidly monopolizing it. This helps them in many ways. How Jews defeat
justice is shown in the Dreyfus case, and by the case of the Jews who murdered
Pere Thomas, the Roman Catholic Priest of
"16). The crowned monarchs of the world are led by Jews, as the German emperor was led by Rathenau before and during the war. Jews lend monarchs in order that they may work with it their own destruction. Jews can manipulate republics more easily than they can monarchies and that is one reason why they foster revolutions."
intermarriage of wealthy sons and daughters of Jews into aristocratic families
has polluted almost all the once noble houses of the Christian world. Not to
mention the Jew 'Peers,' there are the examples of Lord Rosebery and the Rothschilds, and
numbers of Jew duchesses. Lord Crewe is married to the daughter of a Rothschild,
"18). After 'Society,' Commerce. 'Lyons' control the catering trade of the metropolis; Samuel
controls petrol; Mond controls nickel and chemicals;
Samuel and Gluckstein and their co-tribesmen control
tobacco, etc., etc. And so the 'accursed' Christians tamely submit to the
"A Russian newspaper, Prizyv, of 5th Feb., 1919, published in Berlin, contained an interesting document in HEBREW, dated Dec., 1919, which was found in the pocket of the dead Jew Zunder, the Bolshevic Commander of the 11th Sharp Shooter Battalion, throwing light on the secret organization of Jewry in Russia. In extenso it ran as follows:
"Secret. --To the representatives of all the branches of the Israelite International League."
"We must, however, be careful. It can surely be prophecied that, after we have marched over ruins and broken altars and thrones, we shall advance further on the same indicated path."
"The authority of the, to us, alien religions and doctrines of faith we have, through very successful propaganda, subjected to a merciless criticism and mockery. We have brought the culture, civilization, traditions and thrones of the Christian nations to stagger. We have done everything to bring the Russian people under the yoke of the Jewish power and ultimately compelled them to fall on their knees before us.
"We have nearly completed all this but we
must all the same be very cautious, because the oppressed
"Be cautious and silent: We ought to have
no mercy for our enemy. We must make an end of the best and leading elements of
the Russian people, so that the vanquished
"Bronstein (Trotsky), Apfelbaum (Zinovieff), Rosenfeld
(Kamaneff), Steinberg - all of them are like unto
thousands of other true sons of
Central Committee of the
(3) In the testimony given by Dr. George Simons before a special committee
of the United States Senate, he stated thst in 1918,
out of 388 members of the controlling group in Russia only 16 were real Russians
and all the rest Jews except one American negro, and that 265 of these Jews came
from the lower East Side of New York City. (Vol. III of
"It will be noted that the above was found in Hebrew, as were the originals of the Protocols of the EIders of Zion and as are all the secret documents of the Jews. There are plenty of manifestoes in Christian languages that are intended for the Goyim to read. Of these we need take no account. "Israelite International League" can be none other than l'Alliance Israelite Universalle, founded by Cremieux and headed by Rothschild. All four Protocols tell the same tale of malice, revenge, cupidity and murderous hate against Christians and Christianity. Judaism is Satanism; and no amount of ritual and Kabbalistic camouflage can hide this fact.